EDUCATION AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

教育及發展心理學

Students in Education and Human Development can get in touch with: The psychology of personal growth, educational psychology, and the psychology of children, adolescents and adults from a developmental perspective.

學生可在教育及發展心理學學習到: 包括個人成長心理學、教育心理學、兒童、青少年及成人發展心理學等領域。

The education and human development concentration area includes an interdisciplinary framework to develop theories and practices that link how we raise our children — at school, in the family, and the community — to positive psychological outcomes in an interconnected global society. It concerns psychological development across the life span, from infancy, childhood, adolescence, to later life. For example, developmental psychology examines how babies and young children develop the ability to function in our world, including their attachment to the caregivers and their ability to communicate and think about the world. 


教育及發展心理學提供一個跨學科的框架,去了解我們在學校、家庭和社區中學習到教養孩子的理論與方法如何影響一個人在社會中的適應能力。它涉及整個生命週期中的心理發展,從嬰兒期,童年期,青春期到晚期生活。例如:發展心理學研究嬰兒和幼童如何建立處世的能力和發揮所長,其中包括他們對照顧者的依附,以及他們的溝通和思考能力。

Can you delay gratification?

你能延遲滿足嗎?

Imagine you are a 4-year-old child. You are given a piece of marshmallow and have a choice of eating it right away. But if you wait for 15 minutes, you can get one more.


想像你是一位四歲的小朋友,有人給你一粒棉花糖,告訴你可以即時吃, 或等待15分鐘並且能夠獲取多一粒棉花糖作爲獎勵。

Will you wait to get the second marshmallow?
你會等待嗎?

The researchers followed these children up to their adolescence and found that those who sustained delayed gratification for a longer time in the original experiment were rated by their parents as more competent 10 years later [1]. Studies have shown that an ability to delay gratification for longer-term gains is predictive of stronger social competitiveness, higher working and learning efficiency, greater resilience in face of difficulties, and greater self-confidence in the future [2].Interestingly, this “self-control ability” involves a set of skills that can be taught and learned. 


研究發現能夠等待時間愈長的兒童,在十年後有更大機會成為在父母眼中有能力的青少年[1]。延遲滿足能力愈強的孩子,長大後更容易發展出較強的社會競爭力、較高的工作和學習效率、面對困難時有更大的適應力,以及具有較強的自信心[2]。有趣的是,這種「自我控制能力」是可以學習得到的。

[1] Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Peake, P. K. (1988). The nature of adolescent competencies predicted by preschool delay of gratification. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 687-696.
[2] Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Rodriguez, M. I. (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science, 244, 933-938.